In this chapter, we look at soft tissue (Table 10-1). Since soft tissue is not preserved in fossils, the last column in Table 10-1 uses Australian aborigines (AA), male chimpanzees (C), and male gorillas (G) for comparison.
|Trait||Asians||Caucasians||Africans||AA, C, & G|
|Volume (cc) (1) 1||1416||1369||1282|
|Degree of fissuring (2)||High||High||Moderate||C: Less|
|Size of frontal lobes (abstract reasoning) (3)||Larger, more fissured, and more complex||Larger, more fissured, and more complex||Smaller, less fissured, and less complex||-|
|Testicles (4)||Small||Medium||Large||C: Larger|
|Apocrine glands (5)||Small and few||Medium and more||Large and most||-|
|Body odor||Very little||Medium||Strong||-|
|Epicanthic fold (6)||Present||Absent||Absent, except Bushmen||C: Absent|
|Eye color (iris) (7)||Dark brown, black||Blue, green, hazel, brown||Dark brown, black||AA: Dark brown, black|
C & G: Black
|Eye color (sclera) (8)||White||White||White, but sometimes yellowish||C: Dark|
|Lips (9)||Medium||Medium, thin in north||Large, thick, everted||AA: Medium|
C & G: Thin
|Ears 2||-||Large, rectangular, thin||Small, round, thick, high; small earlobes||C: large|
|Ear wax||Dry, brittle, grey or beige||Sticky, wet, brown||Sticky, wet, brown||-|
|Nose (10)||Low||Long, thin, and narrow||Short, flat, and wide||AA: Large, broad|
C & G: Flat and broad
|Mouth (11)||Small||Usually small, some large||Large||C: Large|
|Voice pitch (12)||-||M=117 Hz|
F= 217 Hz
|Skin thickness (13)||-||Thin||Thicker, outer horny layer||-|
|Fat distribution (14)||Uniform||Concentrates (buttocks, abdomen, etc.)||Concentrates (buttocks)||-|
|Skin color (15)||Yellowish||Flesh colored||Dark||C: Flesh until 10-12, then dark|
|Body hair (16)||Little body hair||More than Africans, especially in south||Less than Caucasians, more than Asians||AA: Medium|
|Head hair, color (17)||Dark brown, black||Blond, red, brown, black||Dark brown, black||AA: Dark brown, black|
|Head hair, form (18)||Straight, long||Straight or wavy, long||Wooly, short.||AA: Curly|
|Head hair, microscopic (19)||Circular, thick||Oval, thin||Flat, no central duct 3||-|
|Beard||Very little||Heavy||Little, except Pygmies 4||AA: Heavy|
|Muscles (proportion of total body weight) (20)||Low||Medium||High||C: Higher|
|Calf muscle (21)||-||Large and low||Small and high||-|
|Male testosterone level (23)||Low||Intermediate||19% higher than whites 5||-|
|Serotonin level (24)||-||-||Lower than Eurasians||-|
|Blood Type (25)||-||Fblb3||Ablb3||AA: CDe(R1)|
(1) Converting brain volume into the number of neurons, Mongoloids average more than half a billion more neurons than Negroids. 6 The East Asians (Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese) have the highest ratio of brain to body mass, but the record for brain size goes to Russian writer Ivan Turgenev, at 2012 gms. (Corballis, 1991, p. 66). The heritability of brain size is about 0.9 (Lynn, 2006a, p. 67).
Until recently, when cranial capacity and brain volume could be measured by magnetic imaging, cranial capacity was determined by plugging the holes in a skull and filling it with small pellets and brain volume was determined by weighing the brain and dividing by its density. 7 Due to the thickness of the membranes that surround the brain, brain volume is less than cranial capacity. (Fig. 14-8).
(2) The ridges (“gyri”) between the groves (“sulci”) at the surface of the brain greatly increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex, the outer layer of the cerebrum. Since the cerebral cortex processes information, increased brain fissures increases the percentage of the brain that is cerebral cortex and should increase intelligence without increasing the volume of the brain, although this is difficult to establish quantitatively. (Baker, 1974, p. 432).
|African Americans||13.3 mm||13.2 mm||13.6 mm||13.8 mm|
|Caucasian Americans||8.0 mm||9.3 mm||8.7 mm||9.4 mm|
|Figure 10-6||Figure 10-7|
(10) In Figure 10-6 and Figure 10-7, notice that the nose of Paris Hilton is narrower, longer (eyes to bottom of nose), and protudes more than the nose of the African woman. Those differences in shape produce vertical ovals for the nostril openings of Caucasians and horizontal ovals for the nostril openings of Africans. Also, the tip of the nose over the septum between the nostrils extends farther down in Caucasians than in Africans.
Narrow noses warm and moisten the air, and evolve where the air is cold or dry, and broad noses evolve where the air is warm or moist. (Coon, 1962, p. 62).
(16) Caucasians have the most body hair, Asians the least, with Africans in between, but closer to Asians. It is probable that our northern predecessors once had “fur,” thick body hair for warmth, 41 but today fur appears only as an occasional atavism (i.e., “generalized congenital hypertrichosis”), where the turned-off allele that codes for it is turned on again, resulting in a “werewolf.” (See KRT41P gene, p. 103.)
(17) Some Australian aborigines have blond hair (Fig. 22-5, p. 177 & 27-4, p. 232) which may be more of an ash blond (Fig. 10-10). Unlike the golden blond hair of Europeans, ash blond hair lacks both the reddish (phenomelanin) pigment and the dark (eumelanin) pigment. 42 African hair is black, except certain diseases can make it reddish.
|Figure 10-11 Figure 10-12|
(18) African hair grows more slowly and is more fragile than European hair. Asian hair grows the fastest and has the greatest elasticity. Africans have the shortest hair, 43 Asians the longest. African males, and even more so European males, are more prone to balding than Asian males. 44 Some Africans, especially females (Fig. 10-11), have a receding hairline over the forehead, a characteristic of the bonobo chimpanzee and the orangutan. (Fig. 10-12). 45 (Also see Fig. 25-8, p. 215 & 26-8, p. 226).
(19) The wooly hair of Africans is believed to be a specialized trait that evolved in their tropical bipedal ancestors to facilitate the evaporation of sweat, thereby keeping the brain cool. Similarly, pubic hair, which is curly in all the races, may serve to facilitate the evaporation of pheromones. Figures 10-13a, 10-13b, and 10-13c are transverse cross-sections (top) and longitudinal views (bottom) of the head hair of Caucasians,
Negroids, and Mongoloids. 46
|Figure 10-13a||Figure 10-13b||Figure 10-13c|
(20) (Ama, 1986). Slow twitch red muscle fibers (Type I) resist fatigue, but lack strength; fast twitch muscle fibers (Types IIA - pink and IIB – white, almost all IIB in humans) tire quickly, but contract more rapidly. East Africans (e.g., the Nandi district in western Kenya; Entine, 2000, pp. 39-41) have more Type I red fibers and excel in marathons; West Africans (and most African Americans; id, p. 34) have more Type IIB white fibers, 47 and excel in sprinting and jumping, which is why African Americans dominate the running back and cornerback positions in football and all but six of the 500 fastest times for the 100-metre dash have come from sprinters of West African descent. West African sprinters have heavier fast-twitch muscles, as well as denser bones, narrower hips, thicker thighs, longer legs and lighter calves, all helpful in running. 48 Eurasians have less fast twitch muscle fiber than Africans, suggesting a greater reliance upon tools and weapons, and the intelligence needed to make and use them, and less reliance on athletic ability. 49
(21) Africans have slenderer calves with longer tendons. 50 Kenyans (from East Africa) dominate world records in long distance races. They have birdlike legs (400 grams less flesh on each calf), so they need less energy to swing their legs.
(22) The gluteal (buttocks) muscles in Africans and Caucasians are “stacked,” but they are “offset” in Asians, making Asian buttocks flatter. These muscles are thicker in blacks.
(23) Higher testosterone levels correlate with a more masculine body, an earlier sexual maturity, a higher fertility, manual labor instead of intellectual labor, a higher crime rate, 51 a higher sexually transmitted disease rate, a shorter lifespan, and lower intelligence. 52 There is convincing scientific evidence suggesting that testosterone is the primary hormonal element of aggression in both sexes. 53 The severity and violence of the crime for which female prison inmates were incarcerated is in direct proportion to their plasma (blood) levels of testosterone. (Dabbs, 1997). Asians have lower testosterone levels, but the level in females is closer to the level of males (i.e., less sexual dimorphism). Other hormone levels also differ between blacks and whites. (Wright, 1995). Testosterone levels decline when a male pair bonds, suggesting that such males had greater reproductive success. (Shur, 2008).
(24) Low levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, have been linked to impulsive violence, suicide, alcoholism, and depression. (Brown, 1982). Serotonin levels are 20 to 30% lower in men than in women, and men are more prone to impulsive violence. Serotonin levels are high in newborns, low in adolescents (who are more prone to impulsive violence), then rise again with age. Blacks have lower levels of serotonin, but if socioeconomic status (SES) is controlled for there is no correlation between race and serotonin level; 54 low serotonin levels are genetic as they have been tied to specific alleles. 55 However, the egalitarians fear that the races may differ genetically in their propensity towards violence (they do) and have stifled research in this area.
(25) Blood types overlap quite a bit between the races, though most of the world is Rh positive while about half of Europe is Rh negative. (Sykes, 2001, p. 41). The races differ significantly in the percentage of their populations that fall into the different categories of the various systems for classifying blood. (Baker, 1974, pp. 185-187). Some blacks have rare blood types found only in blacks and, to avoid incompatibility, they may be advised to receive blood transfusions from blacks having the same type. Treating a person of one race as though he were a member of a different race can lead to serious medical problems or even death. “The number of red corpuscles and the amount of haemoglobin in the blood [Nicklas, 1987], the pulse-rate, the vital capacity [lung capacity], the muscular strength, the amount of urea in the urine, are different in different races.” 56. "Most populations below the Sahara average 60 percent of the Rho subtype found in only 2 percent of whites. Absence of the Duffy factor (Fy) in blacks, common in other people, is responsible for their immunity to vivax malaria." (Pollitzer, W.S., The Gullah People and their African Heritage, 1999, p. 15).
There are scores of different tissue types that have a genetic component and differ among the races. (Sykes, 2001, p. 91). The races have different bacteria in their bodies (Caufield, 2007), e.g., different vagina flora and fauna, and different parasites, e.g., a different species of body mite inhabits the bodies of East Asians and Europeans.
There are racial differences in reactions to foods, drugs (Bailey, 2005), and other substances. In June of 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the sale of BiDilTM, a drug that reduces damage to the heart in African Americans, but has little effect on Eurasians. (Liggett, 2008). The FDA specifically permitted its sale to be directed at blacks. GenSpec Labs, LLC is even marketing race-tailored vitamins, specially designed to meet the needs of African Americans, Hispanics, and Caucasians.
There are racial differences in susceptibility to various diseases, even neuroses and psychoses, but especially debilitating diseases, such as cancer, and genetic diseases. (Holloway, A., 1996). For example, whites have much more melanoma (skin cancer) than blacks, but far more blacks have a deadlier form of it. (Hu, 2006). African Americans are more than twice as susceptible as whites to developing prostate cancer by age 55, and that is due, at least in part, to a gene variant in chromosome-8. (Freedman, M.L., 2006). Blacks are also more susceptible to tuberculosis. (Stead, 1990). Northern Europeans, on the other hand, are more susceptible to cystic fibrosis. Two well-known racial genetic diseases are sickle-cell anemia in Africans and Tay-Sachs disease in European Jews, 57 but there are many others.
In fact, the number of medical differences between the races is so great that it would take an entire book just to describe them all. A black medicine specialty is arising and there is even a journal, Ethnicity and Health, devoted to medical differences between the races. Blacks at Howard University have started a program to identify genes unique to blacks so that medical treatment can be specifically tailored for blacks. To argue that “race” is just a social concept when the human body reacts differently to chemical and biological substances and infectious organisms depending upon race, illustrates perfectly how nonsensical that position is.
Table of Contents
1. (Lynn, 2006a, pp. 210 – 211) for human data and (Aiello, 1990, p. 193) for chimpanzee and gorilla data. Different measuring techniques give somewhat different data. (Rushton, 2000a, pp. 130, 133) gives a brain volume of 1364 cc for Mongoloids, 1347 cc for Caucasoids, and 1267 for Negroids. Back
2. Blacks have better hearing than other races. (Murphy, 2006). Back
3. (1911 Encyclopedia Britannica; Baker, 1974, p. 308). Back
4. The Pygmies live in forests around the villages of the Congoids. Unlike the Congoids, they “sometimes have beards and body hair, especially on the back…” (Howells, 1948, p. 277). Back
5. (Ross, 1986). Back
6. (Rushton, 2000a, p. 133; Broom, 1918, p. 63-79; Howells, 1948, p. 118; Galloway, 2005, pp 31-47). Back
7. Brain volume in cc = 1.038 x (brain weight in grams). (Rushton, 2000a, p. 126). Back
8. Drawings by Pierre Louis Gratiolet. The drawings are not to the same scale. The front of the brains is to the left. See (Connolly, 1950). “With regard to convolutions there is unanimous testimony that the convolutions of the brain of the Negro are less numerous and more massive than the brain of the European.” (Hunt, 1864, p. 10). Back
9. (Broca, 1858, cited by Rushton, 2000a, p. 106). The brain of the Hottentot Venus, Fig. 26-5, and the brain of another Sanid were examined and found to have simpler sulci. (Baker, 1974, pp 319, 321; Tiedemann, 1836; Bean, 1906; Connolly, 1950, pp. 146, 203-204, 360). Back
10. “More intelligent brains show faster nerve conduction, less glucose utilization in positron emission tomography [PET scans], faster reaction times, faster inspection times, faster speeds in general, greater circumference and volume, smaller standard deviation in reaction times, greater variability in EEG [electroencephalogram] measures, shorter white matter T2 relaxation times, and higher gray-white matter contrast with magnetic resonance imaging [MRI].” (Miller, 1994d). Back
11. As a percentage of the brain, the cerebral cortex is about 80% in man, about 74% in apes, about 68% in monkeys, and about 50% in prosimians. (Corballis, 1991, p. 67). It develops some time after birth. Back
12. (Putnam, 1967, p. 51, quoting Bolton, 1914). Back
13. (Simpson, 2003, p. 712). “ … the grey substance of the brain of a Negro is of a darker color than that of the European, that the whole brain is of a smokey tint, and that the pia mater [the innermost membrane covering the brain] contains brown spots, which are never found in the brain of a European.” (Hunt, 1865, p. 10). Back
14. (Passingham, 1982). “… imaging studies have shown the prefrontal cortex to be activated when subjects plan or solve the sorts of problems that make demands on general intelligence. Furthermore, there is a significant correlation between the volume of frontal grey matter and intelligence as measured on such tests.” (Passingham, 2002). Back
15. (Broca, 1858, cited by Rushton, 2000a, p. 106; Bean, 1906; Levin, 1997, p. 105). Back
16. A frontal lobotomy, which removes the anterior frontal area of the brain, leaves a person conscious and seemingly normal, but unable to plan and take initiative. (Penfield, 1957, p. 226). That is why Africans have been compared to lobotomized Europeans. (Simpson, 2003, p. 705). Back
17. (Dr. Nora Volkow, "News Release," National Institute on Drug Abuse, Jan., 20, 2006). "Numerous studies have demonstrated significant racial differences in the metabolism of tobacco-related products.” (Wilson, S.E., "Study Examines Racial Differences Among Children To Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Cincinnati Children's Center for Environmental Health," Mar. 15, 2005). Back
18. African Americans have much lower slow wave brain activity during sleep than do Caucasians, which also suggests structural differences in the brain. ("Slow Wave Activity During Sleep Is Lower In African-Americans Than Caucasians," Science Daily, June 13, 2007). Back
19. When female chimps come into heat, they are “famously promiscuous” and mate with a large number of males, who have the largest testicles of any primate. Back
20. Females may then choose men with larger sex organs so that their sons will have more offspring. Back
21. (Library of Excerpts, “Menopause and Menstruation,” neoteny.org). The sperm of promiscuous primates also swim faster (Nascimento, 2007), and one would expect that to also be true of Africans. Back
22. (Matchock, 2006). “Dancers made about $70 an hour [in tips from lap dancing] during their peak period of fertility, versus about $35 while menstruating and $50 in between.” (Hutson, M., “The Stripper’s Secret,” Psychology Today, Oct. 2, 2007, online). Back
23. (Baker, 1974, pp. 174, 176; White, S. & Tieken, T., (1999), “Scent – K9’s Reason For Being”). Back
24. (Prichard, 1836, p. 292). Chemical analysis can already identify individuals and their sex just from their odor. (Penn, 2007). Back
25. (Baker, 1974, pp 173-177; Hall, 1960). Back
26. The retention of arm pit hair, even among very hairless humans, is believed to be for the dissemination of pheromones (odors to attract the opposite sex) - until modern times, people did not bathe regularly and some of us still don’t. (Baker, 1974, p. 165). The scent glands of the genital region become functional only at puberty. (Baker, 1974, p 169). “Mothers can recognize their babies by smell alone within six hours after birth, and within days babies can recognize their mothers’ distinct smells.” (Etcoff, 1999, p. 241). Individual mice, and probably individual humans as well, can be identified by their genetically controlled odor. (Kwak, 2008). There is evidence that the odors (pheromones) that women living together emit cause them to menstruate at about the same time of the month. (Weller, 1993). Back
27. (Jacob, 2002; Wedekind, 1995). Women may be unfaithful or may mate with men of a different race for this reason. (Garver-Apgar, 2006). Back
28. (New Scientist, “The Color Code,” Mar. 10-16, 2007). Back
29. Blue eyes are associated with strategic thinking and achievement, which would be more selected for in men. (“Blue-eyed people better off, say scientists,” News.com.au, Aug. 20, 2007; Clerkin, B., “Why blue-eyed boys (and girls) are so brilliant,” London Daily Mail, Aug. 20,2007). Also see (Worthy, M. "Eye Color, Sex, and Race, 1974). Since light pigmentation is neotenic and blue eyes are less pigmented, neoteny may also play a role: “Most [human] babies have blue eyes but they usually darken as the pigment melanin builds up in the iris.” (Id). “Negro infants at birth and for a short time afterwards have not infrequently a dark, grayish-blue iris." (Johnston, 1910). Puma kittens have blue eyes, which later become brown. (MSN Encarta Encyclopedia). Blue eyes, blond hair, and light skin are produced by the HERC2 gene (p. 102); all three traits are associated with youth, which suggests that the neoteny that occurred in the Caucasian lineage was not the same as the neoteny that occurred in the Asian lineage. Blue eyes can transmit up to 100 times as much light as dark eyes. (Mogk, 2003). While this may lead to macular degeneration, the additional light may have stimulated the pineal gland, giving blue-eyed people a fertility advantage. Back
30. (Kobayashi, 2001). Unlike anywhere else on the body, muscles on the face are attached directly to the skin. (Etcoff, 1999; Schmidt, 2001). Back
31. High intelligence is selected for in animals that have complex social interactions; the smartest animals are also the most social. Even consciousness may be a social adaptation, so that we are aware of how others see us and can behave accordingly. Back
32. (Tomasello, M., “For Human Eyes Only,” New York Times, Jan. 13, 2007). Back
33. “Their [Pygmies of central Africa] eyes are dark brown, but the sclera is white, not flecked with melanin patches as it is among many Negroes and Australian aborigines.” (Coon, 1962, p. 654). “The white of the eye has, in all negroes, a yellowish tinge.” (Burmeister, 1853). “… the sclera [of Australian aborigines is] somewhat yellowish.” (Baker, 1974, p. 298). Referring to the Nilotids (Africans near the Nile River), “The cornea of the eye is somewhat brownish …” (Baker, 1974, p. 329). The eleventh edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica (1911, p. 344) reports that the Negritos of the Pacific (aborigines) have “eyes dark brown with yellowish cornea.” (It is unfortunate that such an old edition of that encyclopedia must be cited, but the Equality Police do not permit frankness on racial matters.) Back
34. (Wikipedia, “Color vision”). The peaks of the detectors are in the center of the blue, green, and red ranges. Back
35. (Changizi, 2006). Here is another explanation. Vertebrates have cones in their retinas for seeing in color and rods for seeing in black and white, but with more detail. The progenitors of mammals had four types of cones, enabling them to distinguish subtle differences in color. When the dinosaurs ruled the earth, early mammals became nocturnal. They lost two types of cones, which were replaced by more rods, enabling them to see better at night. When, 65 mya, the dinosaurs were wiped out, most mammals became diurnal (active in daylight), but still had only 2 types of cones. Birds, however, evolved from dinosaurs and retained the four types of cones. The early primates, from which man evolved, had a mutation that gave them a third cone, which helped them find ripe fruit, and humans today have those 3 types of cones. (Goldsmith, 2006). Back
36. If the wavelengths for the cones in the eyes of Africans are the same (and they very likely are) that would suggest that Africans acquired alleles for those wavelengths from Eurasians, and therefore man migrated into Africa, not out of Africa. Back
37. (Howells, 1959, p. 267). “The skin is also much thicker, especially on the skull, the palm of the hand, and the sole of the foot.” (Hunt, 1864, p. 10). Back
38. Whites with less melanin are several times more likely to develop skin cancer than darker whites. (Dwyer, 2002). Back
39. Eskimos and the Inuit, who eat mostly vitamin D-rich foods such as seal, walrus, and fish, don’t need vitamin D made from sunshine, and their darker skin protects them from the increased cosmic radiation in the Arctic and from ultraviolet light reflected off snow and ice in the summer. Back
40. Gloger’s Rule states that the more humid the environment, the darker the skin. The reason is that eumelanin is more difficult for bacteria and fungi to attack than phenomelanin. Back
41. Although human babies are hairless, as fetuses they have a fine body hair, “lanugo,” suggesting the fetuses of their long-ago ancestors were hairy; see “Biogenetic Law.” Back
42. Of the two main hair pigments, eumelanin and phenomelanin, both yellow blonds and ash blondes have very little eumelanin pigment in their hair, but yellow blonds have more phenomelanin. (Birdsell, 1993). Some people in Melanesia (Brouganville, the Aita) have very dark skin and hair that looks ash blond, but their features are more Negroid and less Caucasian than the Australian aborigine blonds. (Razib, “Blondism in Melanesia, Gene Expression, Oct. 12, 2007). Back
43. “It [Negro hair] is rarely more than three inches long and, generally not nearly so long. (Hunt, 1864, p. 10). (Emma Freeman, London’s Natural History Museum). Back
44. (Emma Freedman, London's Natural History Museum). 45. “The superfices of the face [forehead] at puberty exceeds that of the hairy scalp both in the negro and the monkey, while it is always less in the white man.” (Cartwright, 1857, p. 45). Orangutan picture from Aravind B. Dev’s Animal Talks. Back
46. (Houck, M.M., “Forensic Hair Comparisons,”>). The Caucasian cross-section is enlarged. East Asian cross-sectional area is about 30% greater than African hair and about 50% greater than European hair. Back
47. And, compared to whites, they have 30 to 40% more of the enzymes needed to activate fast twitch muscles. (Ama, 1986). Back
48. The psoas major muscle, which lifts the legs, “is markedly larger in black than in white subjects.” (Hanson, 1999). Back
49. The earliest European modern humans were nearly as robust as Neanderthals. About 30,000 ya they began to lose muscle and bone mass. Modern oarsmen could not power a Greek trireme as fast or as long as Greeks did in 500 BC. (Pain, S., "Histories: When men were gods," New Scientist, Issue 2590, Feb. 10, 2007). Back
50. (Cartwright, 1857, p. 46). Back
51. (“High Testosterone Linked to Crimes of Sex, Violence,” Crime Times. 1(2): 2). Back
52. (Nyborg, 1987; Rushton, 2000a, p. 272; Dabbs, 2001). Gifted children have lower salivy testosterone levels. (Ostatnikova, 2000). Back
53. (Potischman, 2005; Harris, J.A., 1996). “… the same hyperaggressive monkeys that kill each other are also hypersexual …” (Casual remark by Frederick Goodwin, director of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, at the Feb., 1992 meeting of the Mental Health Advisory Council; the Congressional Black Caucas was offended and had him fired). Back
54. Here is an example of academic deception. Since SES (socioeconomic status) correlates with race, by “controlling for” SES, i.e., comparing whites and blacks of the same SES, the researchers removed the correlation between serotonin level and race. The fact remains that a black is more likely to have low serotonin than a white. Back
55. (Williams, 1994). The levels are not completely genetic – abusing a child may lower his serotonin level, even after he becomes an adult. (Maestripieri, 2006). Back
56. (Seal, B. “Meaning of Race, Tribe, Nation,” in Papers on Inter-Racial Problems, First Universal Races Congress, 1911). Back
57. ("Natural Genius?" The Economist, June 2, 2005). Back