|Chapter 15 - Civilizations and Achievements|
|“It will be seen that when we classify mankind by colour the only one of the primary races, given by this classification, which has not made a creative contribution to any one of our twenty-one civilizations is the Black race."|
|Arnold Toynbee, The Study of History|
For the purpose of describing the evolution of modern man, the last three stages have been divided into (1) early man, i.e., Homo erectus and his Homo predecessors, (2) archaic man, Homo sapiens (Hs), who was anatomically and behaviorally not yet fully modern, and (3) modern man, Homo sapiens sapiens (Hss), us. The dates generally given in the literature are that Hs arose about 200,000 ya and Hss arose about 160,000 ya. (Smith, 2007). But even though anatomically modern man arose about 160,000 ya, he did not begin to create civilizations or make notable achievements until about 50,000 ya. (Hoffecker, 2002, pp. 1, 12). The major anatomical difference between archaic man and modern man was that modern man was more gracile, i.e., fewer of the body’s resources were expended on bone and muscle.
Here is a place where the general principles of evolution lead us to a conclusion that may conflict with the fossil evidence. Since evolution follows behavior (Chap. 4, Rule 12), and evidence that man’s behavior changed drastically is dated at about 50,000 ya, either the anatomical changes that facilitated that behavior did not begin until about 50,000 ya or, if they began about 160,000, the behavior began changing prior to that date. The problem could be resolved, however, if the anatomical changes were in soft tissue, e.g., the brain, and a more gracile skeleton was not strongly selected for.
Before the Cultural Revolution 50,000 ya, man’s progress was painfully slow – tens of thousands of years passing with little or no improvement in his tools and weapons. After the Cultural Revolution, tools and weapons became better designed and were made of better materials. Man no longer left his dead to rot and be eaten by animals, but he buried them, often with valued possessions, because now his mind could imagine a life after death. His carvings and drawings also showed evidence of abstract thought. Figures 15-1a and 1b shows two of the gorgeous cave drawings made by early Europeans.
|Figure 15-1a||Figure 15-1b|
What happened? No one knows, but (perhaps not coincidentally), a newly-discovered allele of the microcephalin gene, which affects brain size and intelligence, arose by about 37,000 ya and spread throughout the Eurasian population. (Chap. 13). This allele, together with another, similar allele of the ASPM gene, that arose much more recently, is still rare among Africans, and that may explain some of the difference between Eurasian and African IQs and capacities for civilized behavior. The ASPM allele may have produced a more fissured brain, but since we don’t have the brains of archaic man, we cannot know how fissured his brain was, except by the marks the brain left on the inside of the skull, and they are not definitive. Perhaps it was a change in the organization of the brain, the way it was “wired,” such as an asymmetry between the left and right sides of the brain that enabled areas of the brain to specialize (Corballis, 1991), or it may have been an increase in the prefrontal cortex. At any rate, a civilization is an expression of the gene pool of its builders.
Baker, in his book Race (1974), argues that a society originates a “civilization” if, prior to influence from outsiders, 1 most of its members met most of the 21 requirements given in Table 15-1 (id., p 507-508), where, as usual, “Africans” means sub-Saharan Africans.
|1. In the ordinary circumstances of life in public places, they cover the external genital organs and the greater part of the trunk with clothes.||Yes||Yes||No|
|2. They keep the body clean and take care to dispose of its waste products.||Yes||Yes||No|
|3. They do not practice severe mutilation or deformation of the body, except for medical reasons.||Yes||Yes||No 2|
|4. They have knowledge of building in brick or stone, if the necessary materials are available in their territory.||Yes||Yes||No|
|5. Many of them live in towns or cities, which are linked by roads.||Yes||Yes||No|
|6. They cultivate food-plants.||Yes||Yes||Probably not|
|7. They domesticate animals and use some of the larger ones for transport (or have in the past so used them), if suitable species are available.||Yes||Yes||No 3|
|8. They have a knowledge of the use of metals, if these are available.||Yes||Yes||No|
|9. They use wheels.||Yes||Yes||No (id., p. 373)|
|10. They exchange property by the use of money.||Yes||Yes||No|
|11. They order their society by a system of laws, which are enforced in such a way that they ordinarily go about their various concerns in times of peace without danger of attack or arbitrary arrest.||Yes||Yes||No|
|12. They permit accused persons to defend themselves and to bring witnesses for their defense.||Yes||Yes||No|
|13. They do not use torture to extract information or for punishment.||Yes||Yes||No|
|14. They do not practice cannibalism.||Yes||Yes||No|
|15. Their religious systems include ethical elements and are not purely or grossly superstitious||Yes||Yes||No|
|16. They use a script (not simply a succession of pictures) to communicate ideas.||Yes||Yes||No (id., p. 394)|
|17. There is some facility in the abstract use of numbers, without consideration of actual objects (or in other words, at least a start has been made in mathematics).||Yes||Yes||No|
|18. A calendar is in use, accurate to within a few days in the year.||Yes||Yes||No|
|19. Arrangements are made for the instruction of the young in intellectual subjects.||Yes||Yes||No|
|20. There is some appreciation of the fine arts.||Yes||Yes||No|
|21. Knowledge and understanding are valued as ends in themselves.||Yes||Yes||No|
A few comments on these items:
Item 3. Although there is currently a mania of tattooing and body piercing sweeping US youth, this is not considered “severe” mutilation or deformation of the body and is, hopefully, a phase that will quickly pass.
Item 4. African huts were built with vegetation and mud, never more than one story.
Item 7. Domesticating animals requires not only foregoing the instant gratification of eating them, but also caring for them until they have reproduced. Even then, one must plan still farther ahead by eating only the worst animals, saving the best for reproduction. Such long-term planning is not characteristic of Africans. (Chap. 12).
Item 9. Africans had no wheeled vehicles or devises that employed a wheel, not even a compass.
Item 10. Africans never rose above a barter system.
Item 13. This should be interpreted as open, publicly-accepted torture against common people, and not during a war.
Item 14. Again, this means openly killing people in order to eat them.
Item 15. On January 9, 2001 a lunar eclipse caused rioting in Nigeria; evil people were blamed. (“Eclipse Triggers Nigeria Riot,” BBC News, Jan. 10, 2001). Children have been banned by their own parents in the belief that they are witches. (“DR Congo’s Unhappy Child ‘Witches’,” BBC News, Jan. 13, 2003). Albinos are killed for their body parts, which are used in witchcraft. ("Living in Fear: Tanzania's Albinos," BBC News, July 21, 2008). "Police in Congo have arrested suspected sorcerers accused of using black magic to steal or shrink men's private parts. There has been a wave of panic and attempted lynchings triggered by the alleged witchcraft." (The Case of the Penis Snatchers, Now Public, Apr. 23, 2008).
Item 16. Writing arose independently in at least three places: Mesopotamia, China, and Mesoamerica, and probably also Egypt and India, but did not spread to sub-Saharan Africa.
Item 18. Africans lacked even a sun dial for determining the time of day.
Baker (1974, pp. 506-529) concluded that Caucasians met all 21 criteria in Sumeria (Iraq), Crete, India, and Egypt, and the Asians met them all in China. Africans and Australian aborigines met virtually none of the 21 criteria. The list is, of course, open to much dispute, both as to the requirements on it and as to whether or not the three listed races have met those requirements.
Since the civilization that a people have created is a good indication of their intelligence and advancement from archaic man, the grandeur of their civilization should be consistent with the traits they have, as previously described, especially brain size and complexity, and this is indeed the case. 4
Figure 15-2 shows a portion of Stonehenge, built about 4300 ya in England. Notice how well the huge stones fit together. The capstones are secured to the upright stones by means of stone balls in between them inserted into pits. The circular structure was aligned with the midsummer sunrise, the midwinter sunset, and the most southerly rising and northerly setting of the moon, suggesting possession of a knowledge of astronomy for perhaps thousands of years prior to its construction. In 2150 BC, a thirty-five ton ‘Heel Stone’ was erected outside the circle. Eighty bluestones, some weighing as much as four tons, were transported from the Prescelly Mountains in Wales, 240 miles away. In 2075 BC, the bluestones were taken down and enormous Sarsen stones, averaging eighteen feet in height and weighing twenty-five tons, were transported from near another stone ring at Avebury, twenty miles to the north. 5
|Figure 15-2||Figure 15-3|
Now compare Stonehenge with another stone structure, Great Zimbabwe (Fig. 15-3), the largest ruins in sub-Saharan Africa. It consists of plain stone block walls without mortar and dates to less than 1000 ya, about 3300 yrs after Stonehenge was built and long after non-Africans had arrived. Although Africans probably supplied the labor, it is doubtful that they designed it or instigated its construction as it is not representative of any past Zimbabwean culture or architectural tradition, and Africans do not make use of stone construction. It may have been built by Islamic slave traders as a fortress and slave holding area or as a storage area for goods to be shipped out of Africa. 6
The most advanced civilizations have been created by whites and East Asians. Perhaps the reader believes that the failure of Africans to create civilizations in the past is not due to genes, but to an environment that was not encountered by Caucasians and Asians. It does seem that not only does intelligence increase with distance away from the tropics, but so does civilization. 7 Southern Asia is also tropical and its people also have a lower level of both intelligence and civilization, but not nearly as low as in Africa.
Africa is a huge and diverse continent, with the southern tip having a temperate climate. If there were something unique about the continent itself that prevented the creation of civilizations, then one would expect blacks living elsewhere, such as in Haiti 8 or Detroit, 9 to build civilizations, but instead they have destroyed the civilizations that whites had already built there. Figure 15-4 shows the second floor of the Detroit Public Schools Book Depository, 10 where thousands of books have been destroyed.
|“[T]hey [Africans] will destroy and devour him [whites] and they will destroy all his work.” (Albert Schweitzer)|
One might expect that whites who immigrated to Africa to also fail at building successful civilizations on that continent, but instead they built first world countries; those countries, now taken over by Africans, are descending into chaos. Rhodesia, as it was called when run by whites, was the breadbasket of Africa and exported grain; Zimbabwe, as it was renamed after Africans took over, cannot feed even half its own people. 11 Even Liberia, founded by repatriated American slaves, is dissolving into chaos and cannibalism, despite the infusion of African Americans who had lived in a white country. 12
If Africans were even capable of keeping a white-created civilization going, one would expect them to be much better off when Apartheid and the economic boycotts of South Africa ended in 1994 and the reins of this first world country were turned over to them. But the National Bureau of Economic Research found that the average income of all races in South Africa dropped 40% between 1995 and 2000. The UN 2006 Human Development Report found that over the last 3 decades Africa has had a “virtual reversal” of human development; South Africa dropped 38 places on the Human Development Index since 1994. (UN Development Programme, 2007). The country of the world’s first heart transplant (Christian Barnard, Dec., 1967), the Union of South Africa, is now the rape 13 and murder 14 capital of the world. 15 The deterioration of South Africa since the end of Apartheid refutes egalitarianism. 16
No country ruled by blacks has escaped self-inflicted devastation; it is fair to conclude that blacks are incapable of achieving or maintaining a modern civilization when left to themselves. 17 Figure 15-5 shows the Grande Hotel in Beira, Mozambique in 1975, when the country became independent of white rule.
Table of Contents
1. (Hart, 2007, p. 313). Africa was visited by Europeans, Indians, and Arabs thousands of years prior to recorded history. This is known because crops and animals not indigenous to Africa are nevertheless found there. Also, visitors left many remains of their own civilizations, such as stone structures, pottery, and metals. (Baker, 1974). Back
2. Even today, in formerly-civilized South Africa, Africans practice "severe mutilation" for "medical reasons," though probably not in the way that Baker had in mind. (Tibbetts, G., "Machete gangs bring fear to South Africa as they carry out mutilations for traditional medicine," Telegraph, Oct. 18, 2008). Back
3. Some say the guinea fowl was domesticated in s-S Africa, but (Baker, 1974, p. 375) denies it. It is easy to domesticate as it does not have to be penned. The failure of Africans to domesticate mammals is consistent with their high rate of lactose intolerance. Dr Steinman (Milk Allergy and Lactose Intolerance, May, 2002) gives the following figures for lactose intolerance for children over 5 years old: "90-95% of black individuals and 20-25% of white individuals throughout the world." However, most Asian populations, especially people from Far East, are also very lactose intolerant (close to 100%). Asians did domesticate herds, but did not use them for milk. A few African tribes, such as the Fulani, have low rates of lactose intolerance (around 20-25 percent), but the Fulani are an Islamic people who likely have an Arabic heritage. Back
4. An “emergent” property is property that is expressed in an interacting group of units, but is not expressed in the individual units that comprise that group. For example, molecules have properties very different from the properties of the atoms that comprise them, and so do organisms compared to their cells. An emergent property is possible only if the units have a property that enables the emergent property to be expressed when the units interact. A civilization is an emergent property of the individuals who create and maintain it, and that civilization requires those individuals in order to be created and maintained. And, because the traits of individuals in different populations differ (Section II), their civilizations will be unique to those individuals, i.e., different populations will create and maintain different civilizations, or perhaps no civilization. (Kemp, 2006). Back
5. Oxford University engineer Professor Alexander Thom and the astronomer Gerald Hawkins pioneered the new field of archaeoastronomy - the study of the astronomies of ancient civilizations. They showed that 2000 years before Euclid, and at least 3000 years before the sixth century AD sage Arya Bhata discovered pi, the Pythagorean Theorem and pi were used in the construction of Stonehenge. A 4000 year old temple, the Temple of the Fox in Peru, also had astronomical features. (Benfer, 2006). Another example: a bronze analogue navigational computer dated at 80 BC was found off a Greek island. See (Wikipedia, “Antikythera Mechanism”; Freeth, 2006). The higher sea level after the last ice age may have left other Eurasian structures, such as the Yanaguni Monument off Japan, under the ocean. Back
6. (Childe, 1965, pp. 212-243). A more modern comparison may be the tiny Netherlands, much of it reclaimed from the sea, whose economic product is greater than all of Africa’s. (Dalrymple, T., “How the West Was Lost,” The American Conservative, June 18, 2007). Back
7. “Tropical rainforests are not generally favorable to the development of civilizations.” (Haywood, 2000, p. 150). Back
8. “Between 1844 and 1915 only one Haitian President completed his term of office. Fourteen were ousted by armed uprisings, one was blown up, one was poisoned and another was hacked to pieces by a mob. Between 1908 and 1915 the revolutions and assassinations increased so rapidly that a United States military occupation was needed to restore order. This lasted from 1915 to 1934. Thereafter followed twelve years of rule by a mulatto elite which ended in the resumption of control by the black military in 1946. Since then wholesale corruption and political murder have been the rule.” (Putnam, 1967). Back
9. Detroit looks like a bombed out city; so much vegetation is reclaiming it that it is now one of the greenest cities in the country. (“The Ruins of Detroit”). In 2007, Detroit won the “Most Dangerous City in America” award (CQ Press); Detroit’s population is 81.6% black (2000 US Census). Back
10. “A mind is a terrible thing to waste,” (United Negro College Fund). Back
11. Yet whites turn the worst land into an oasis. In July, 2005, President Robert Mugabe said there would be "not a single white on the farms" under his land reform policy. As the whites were driven away, the country soon faced “starvation and economic collapse.” (C. Thompson, “Zimbabwe poised to welcome back white farmers,” Guardian Unlimited, Jan. 3, 2007). Also, (Berger, S., “Zimbabwe’s Hospital System ‘Beyond Help’,” Feb. 8, 2007, Telegraph, UK ). For details on the waste, corruption, stupidity, and savagery in post-colonial Africa, the reader is referred to (Meredith, M., The Fate of Africa: From the Hopes of Freedom to the Heart of Despair, Public Affairs Press, 2005). “[Zimbabwe] has the world’s highest inflation and fastest-shrinking peacetime economy … with the lowest life expectancy anywhere – just 34 for women and 37 for men – and the highest percentage of orphans.” (Christina Lamb, The Australian, Mar., 2007; also, Kemp, 2006, Chap. 57). To put this another way, the carrying capacity of Africa depends on the people living there; it is much higher in a white Africa than in a black Africa. The presence of whites in Africa enables black Africans to proliferate far in excess of the black carrying capacity. (Chapter 4, caveat to Rule 7) See (Salter, 2002a, p. 61-63) for a discussion of carrying capacity. Back
12. (www.YouTube.com, “Founded by Americans, Liberia was once the shining star of Sub-Saharan Africa. Now cannibals rule the streets”). “Even Christianity, of more than three centuries’ duration in Congo, has scarcely excited a progressive civilization.” (Hunt, 1864, p. 19). Back
13. In South Africa “a woman is sexually assaulted every 40 seconds.” (“Big Brother Horror Show,” The First Post, Nov. 1, 2007). "Is it not horrendous for an adult man to rape a nine-month-old baby?” Nobel Peace Prize winner archbishop Desmond Tutu, referring to the belief among South African blacks that raping a baby cures AIDS. (“One Child Raped Every 24 Minutes,” News 24, South Africa, Nov. 4, 2007). File this under “Ouch!”: A white South African woman invented a "female condom"; it has small hooks that attach to an attacker's penis. ("Anti-Rape Device Must Be Banned, Say Women ." Times (England), June 8, 2005). Swedish women are raped so much by African immigrants that some have designed and are selling a chastity belt. (“Swedish Girls Design Anti-Rape Belt,” The Local, Nov. 22, 2005). Back
14. (Mercer, I., “The ugly truth about democratic South Africa,” World Net Daily, Dec. 15, 2006). Back
15. The black-white income gap shrank up to 1994, when Apartheid ended, then grew from 98% more income for whites to 118% more. (Leibbrandt, 2005). The number of South Africans living on less than $1/day has more than doubled in the decade after Apartheid ended. (South Africa Institute of Race Relations). Also, (“Has the Penny Finally Dropped?” South African Bulletin, Transvaal Agricultural Union). Google has censored the "Why South Africa Is Crap" blog, and its successors, "South Africa Sucks" and "South African Hell," but the "South Africa Sucks" blog has re-appeared. Also see "African Crisis" and (Kemp, 2006, Chapter 56). Back
16. Black economist Walter Williams stated, “[O]rdinary Africans were better off under colonialism.” (Jewish World Review, Jan. 9, 2001). The Belgium Congo is another example: "The atrocities perpetrated by these armed groups are of an unimaginable brutality that goes far beyond rape. Women are brutally gang raped, often in front of their families and communities. In numerous cases, male relatives are forced at gun point to rape their own daughters, mothers or sisters. Frequently women are shot or stabbed in their genital organs, after they are raped. Women, who survived months of enslavement, told me that their tormentors had forced them to eat excrement or the human flesh of murdered relatives." (Yakin Erturk, U.N. human rights expert; Klapper, B.S., “Attacks On Women In Congo Go 'Far Beyond Rape',” Associated Press, July 30, 2007). Back
17. “Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.” (John Milton, Paradise Lost). “The still largely primitive Africans have not as yet acquired the necessary skill merely to maintain the legacy left by the Whites, let alone to organize further developments.” (Schumann, 1960, p. 91). Also see (Kaplan, R.D., "The Coming Anarchy," Atlantic Monthly, 1994). Back
18. (Baker, 1974, pp 373-377). However, “[donkeys were] the only important domestic animal known to come from Africa.” (Hecht, 2005). Hecht adds that the domestication was only 5000 to 6000 ya in Egypt, so it was not in sub-Saharan Africa and would have been by Caucasians. Back
19. Notice (p.113) how Caucasian-looking these prominent blacks are. Light-skinned blacks are more intelligent (Lynn, 2006a, p 65) and accomplished (Baker, 1974, pp 503-505) than darker blacks. Also see (Simpson, 2003, p. 719). (If female, they are also favored by black males and hated by blacker females; Marroquin, C.A., “The Face of Colorism,” Student Web, University of Oklahoma). Back
20. The 1964 Civil Rights Act, which explicitly prohibited quotas, has now been interpreted as requiring quotas. Griggs v. Duke Power (401 US 424, 1971), created the concept of “disparate impact,” that, even in the absence of any intent to discriminate, any job requirement not met by a proportional number of protected minorities is illegal, unless the requirement is “job related.” (But if a company is not discriminating why would it have a requirement unless it was job related?). The result has been to construct requirements in such a way that the requirements are incapable of distinguishing between qualified white males and unqualified, but protected, minorities. (Meyer, B., “Federal rule blocks recruiting police officers from outside Buffalo,” The Buffalo News, Oct. 26, 2007). Back
21. Blacks who are below the 40th percentile of “g” distribution for IQ, have slightly less income than whites, but blacks in higher IQ levels earn increasingly greater amounts more than whites because the number of blacks drops rapidly at higher IQs (p. 114), while the demand for them increases due to affirmative action. (Nyborg, 2001). "[B]lack college-educated females currently earn 125 percent of what white college educated females earn.” (Reiland, 1995). “This means that white professionals would be paid more if they were black, another transfer of wealth from whites to blacks. The result is a shift of whites to fields where discrimination against them is more difficult, such as self-employment and consulting work. White males are also less likely to pursue professional degrees. Companies, forced to pay more for less competent employees, transfer operations overseas or farm out work to people in foreign countries.” (Nyborg, 2001). “It is shown that on average a black worker, between the ages of 25 and 64, earns an extra $9,400 a year because of affirmative action. Hispanics also benefit to the tune of almost $4,000 a year. However, being a zero-sum game, white workers pay an average of about $1,900 annually to foot the bill.” (La Griffe du Lion, 1999b). Back
22. One may wonder why whites would pass laws that sacrifice the interests of whites to benefit non-whites, which is surely suicidal and maladaptive; that is discussed in Chapter 33. Back
23. In December, 2005, it was announced that Walmart's general counsel told its top 100 law firms that at least one person of color and one woman must be among the top five relationship attorneys that handle its business. (Hobbs, M., "Wal-Mart Demands Diversity in Law Firms ," Law.Com, July 6, 2005). It is very common for large businesses to require their white management to hire and promote blacks into management, then make sure they do not fail; they are threatened with the loss of bonuses and promotions, and even being fired, if they are do not. Also see (Cardwell, 2006). Since there are not enough competent black managers to meet the demand, competent black managers are paid a significantly greater salary for being black, and incompetent blacks must be hired to make up the difference, practices which make American businesses less competitive. Back
24. In violation of the Fourteenth Amendment: No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. (Thomas, 1995). Back
25. Nobel Peace Prizes, however, are often given to blacks (at least five) for vague and dubious accomplishments. Kenyan ecologist Wangari Maathai, (the 2004 winner) claims that the AIDS virus was invented in some laboratory in the West as “a biological weapon aimed at wiping out the black race.” Another recipient was Martin Luther King. (Epstein, M., “Myths of Martin Luther King,” LewRockwell.com, Jan. 18, 2003). Back
26. See “Black Invention Myths.” Also (Gayre, 1967, pp. 131-143; Nevin, 1967, p. 233). Jenkem is an actual black invention. Back
27. (Mackintoch, 1976). Mr. Mackintoch is an historian with the National Park Service in Washington, D.C. Carver had so much white heritage that his eyes were blue. (Putnam, 1961, p. 92). Back
28. A 1987 study, quoted in Samuel Huntington’s book, “Who Are We.” Back
29. Musical ability is associated with intelligence, but African Americans do poorer than Europeans on tests of pitch, tone, and musical memory, and are about the same only on tests of rhythm. (Lynn, 2006a, p 55-57). I un-humbly cite my own essay on this subject. Back
30. For a list, see (Arsuaga, 2001, p. 194; Haywood, 2000, p. 64). Horses were actually native to North America, but they had been hunted to extinction by the Indians 10,000 years before the Spaniards arrived; the Spaniards re-introduced them in the 1500’s. (Allman, 1994, p. 207). That Eurasians killed off large mammals has been disputed. (Guthrie, 2006). A comet in the Great Lakes region may have killed off the North American large mammals. (Dalton, R., “Blast in the Past?,” Nature, May 16, 2007, Vol. 447, pp. 256-257). Back
31. Picture of gorilla head is from (The Sunday Telegraph, Sept. 5, 2004). Also, see (Discovery Channel News, “Silverback Gorillas Eaten By Rebels,” Jan. 18, 2007). Now that Africans have white man’s guns, these and smaller animals are disappearing. (See the powerful documentary movie, “Africa Addio.”) The bonobo chimp is being killed as bush meat, and so are many other animals that Africans could not have killed without white technology. The chimpanzee and the gorilla did get some revenge – Africans who ate them picked up the virus that causes AIDS. ("Aids started by humans eating chimps," Telegraph (England), Feb., 1999). Van Heuverswyn, 2006). Back
32. General Butt Naked was a contemporary African general in Liberia. (“Ex-warlord confesses to 20,000 deaths,” CNN.com, Jan. 21, 2008). Back
33. (Barkow, 1991, pp. 148-149). And, surprisingly, the Western population that is the most opposed to racism, the Jews, is the most ethnocentric. (Review by S. Hornbeck of (MacDonald, 2002b)). “[T]he original motivation of many of the early Zionists was that Israel would ensure racial purity.” (MacDonald, K., on his blog, “Outside the Jewish Mainstream: Robert Weissberg and Philip Weiss”). Ethnocentrism, war, and other behaviors found in humans is also seen in the most successful monkey species, the rhesus macaques. (Maestripieri, 2007). Back
34. “By 2010, whites will account for only about 9% of the world’s population, compared with 17% in 1997, according to demographer Harold Hodgkinson; whites will then be the world’s smallest minority.” (Rubenstein, 2006). In 1959 whites were 27.98% of the world’s population and blacks were 8.97%; by 2060 whites will be 9.76% and blacks will be 25.38%. (“Global White Population to Plummet to Single Digit—Black Population to Double,” National Policy Institute, Apr. 14, 2008). Back